PERCEPTUAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF MUSICAL SOUNDS - Kristoffer Jensen
This paper presents the research involved in the elaboration of the timbre model, a signal model which has been built to better understand the relationship between the perception of timbre and the musical sounds most commonly associated with timbre. The elaboration of the timbre model involves an overview of the related topics in many fields. In particular the signal processing, perceptual and physical considerations, which have been taken into account when elaborating the model, are detailed. This includes in particular the timbre perception research and results from physical models of musical instruments. The timbre model is based on a sinusoidal model, and it consists of a spectral envelope, frequencies, and a temporal envelope, which together form the deterministic part of the model, and different irregularity parameters, which form the stochastic part of the model. Many of the parameters of the model (the timbre attributes) are here associated with verbal opposition pairs, such as high-low and dark-bright. An overview is given of the relevant signal processing aspects, the perceptual and psycho- acoustic research with relevance, and the physical reality behind many of the choices made when elaborating the model. The analysis, estimation and understanding of the timbre attributes are related to relevant research, wherever applicable, giving indications on how to improve these issues, evaluate the improvement and relate the improvements to timbre perception.
ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSIVE INTENTIONS IN PIANO PERFORMANCE - Sergio Canazza, Giovanni De Poli, Antonio Roda
To interpret, from the Latin interpretâri, literally means to act as a mediator, to negotiate. In the western classical tradition, the performer is the mediator, the intermediary between the composition and the listener. Such mediation allows different degrees of freedom. Each musician interprets the musical sign translating it into sound, but thanks to the freedom he is allowed to exploit, he can communicate, at the same time, his own expressive intention to the listener. This research tries to establish if and in which measure a specific expressive intention is communicated and which amount of freedom the performer has at his disposal in this mediation.
With this purpose, we analysed several interpretations of the same excerpt, each one characterized by a different expressive intention to establish how the performer modified the performance parameters of his instrument. By means of sonological andlysis, we found some parameters, which permit to characterise different performances of the same piece.
STUDIES ON IDENTIFICATION OF RAGA USING SHORT PIECES OF TAAN : A SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH - A K Datta, R. Sengupta, N.Dey and Dipali Nag
The paper reports on the study of whether some short pieces of taan, a fast rendering of notes, in a raga contains completely objective information for identifying the raga. For this purpose four ragas namely Bhairav, Darbari Kannada, Mian-ki-Malhar and Todi are chosen. Taan portions are selected from the kheyal style rendering of these four ragas by four accomplished singers of different gharanas. Only pitch files extracted from the recorded signals are used. Correlation coefficients and modified correlation are used for both the identification of identifiers and the classification the ragas of 58 taan pieces. Identifiers are about 1.5 second long. Cognitive information like, scale, note or grammar are not used. The study indicates that taan pieces do contain substantial information for identifying a raga.
THE NON-STRING MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE VEDIC LITERATURE - Didhiti Biswas
Vedic texts and literatures contain the description of a number of rituals. All these rituals were performed with the chanting of I hymns that were accompanied by the playing of different musical instruments, however primitive that might be. The text6s actually stress upon the meticulous descriptions of the performance of the rituals living the minutest details and somehow overlook the detailed information on the associated musical instruments. This paper deals with some of the non-string instruments whose references are found in a very sketchy way in the Vedic texts and literatures.
MUSICAL CREATIVITY AND COMMUNICATION - Pradip Kumar Sengupta
Music, as an art-form, is ever-growing. The characteristic dynamism of music, which happens to act as the principle of growth, is beyond all laws of space and time governing empirical experience. Musical creativity has its root in the realization of a perfect totality of musical sounds which are highly abstract in themselves. The totality is the result of the vision of the musician. This is a unique feature of the attitude of the musicians resulting in an unanticipated interpretation of the great facts of human life and its experiences. It is this attitude which the musician seeks to communicate through his music which is not necessarily confined to the ordinary verbal language. It is, perhaps, in this sense that musical creativity together with its unique communication is said to be an unending process.
EXTENT OF ANADDHA OR AVANADDHA FOLK INSTRUMENTS IN INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY - Sisir Kumar Mukherjee
India’s music system, a rich legacy of the cultural heritage, is manifested in various forms from time immemorial. Historical evidences bear witnesses to these forms. Musical instruments were component parts of such system, executed by sculptors and painters who thought it wise enough to conserve them, along with their works of creations on the Indian soil. Regional cultures, flourished on such creations of the past, are the sustaining factors for survival of this heritage art in the folk community. Academic divisions of such instruments have helped to identify them in respect of their nature, content, use etc.