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When, on a fretted plucked instrument, a note is struck and the string is pulled outwards or transversely across a fret to reach a higher note or several higher notes from that single stroke, it is called a Meend (pronounced as meenrh). This definition is applicable to the Sitar, Surbahar, various types of Veenas and other fretted instruments. However, the term meend now has a wider implication. It is generally understood as a glide from one note to another, not only on the sitar or other such fretted instruments but also on other instruments as well as vocal music.

Different kinds of meends form the single most important component in raga sangeet and other forms of Indian music. Ghaseet and Soonth also belong to the Meend family. Overall, the Meend is one of the most difficult elements in raga music. Proper rendition of meends not only depends on the accuracy of the starting and ending swars but also on the exacting knowledge of the kan-swars of the ragas, the speed of these meends and the accents on intermediate swars.

This is a short alaap in raga Kafi Kanhada by ITC SRA Guru, Buddhadev Das Gupta where he employs and executes different meends in the three octaves.

Here is a meend-based dhrupad, Adham Udhaarini Maan Suni Kai, in Chhayanat set to Chautala (although without percussion accompaniment), performed by our Guru-Prefect, Falguni Mitra.

Types of Meend (khayal/dhrupad/instrumental)

Meend - Basic
Meend - with rests on intermediate notes
Undulating Meends
Sargam meends
Meends in Dhrupad


Meend Kan Sparsh Krintan Andolan
Gamak Kampit Khatka/Gitkari Zamzama Murki

Combination of Alankars in recital

All audio/video clips have been reproduced here with the required specific permission. Any attempt to capture and/or distribute these recordings in any manner whatsoever is a violation of applicable laws including copyright laws in India or other applicable jurisdiction.


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