OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TIMBRAL QUALITY OF SITARS HAVING STRUCTURAL CHANGE OVER TIME
Sitar is one of the long lasted classical musical instruments in India. From its evolution, through the ages, its structure has been changing continuously by means of development in shape and sound. All these were done by the then extraordinary talented craftsmen with the imaginative and emotional attachment of legendary music maestros. The primary objective for the structural modification of sitar were – improvement of sound quality and easy to play all the required idioms and express best all the emotions of that related musician. Since the introduction of microphone to its growing sophistication, a number of structural modifications occurred in sitar to produce suitable sound as per musician’s perception and changing taste of audience. In this paper we emphasize on the variation in the acoustical features occurred due to the structural changes of sitar from early to contemporary recordings. Timbre and Spectral features are the key to explain scientifically the changing profile of sitar which was based on perception of the instrument makers and the players during 20th century.
Cross-Modal Affective Priming With Musical Stimuli: Effect of Major and Minor Triads on Word-Valence Categorization
Despite well-known effects of music on affect, musical stimuli have rarely been included in affective priming studies. In the present experiments, the effects of major and minor triads on judgments of the valence of visually-presented target words were examined. On each trial, participants heard either a major triad (positive valence) or a minor triad (negative valence), followed by a target word having either positive or negative valence. Participants categorized the target as either positive or negative. In Experiment 1, an analysis of target-categorization errors revealed a significant interaction: Fewer errors were made in valence-congruent conditions (major-positive and minor-negative) than were made in valence-incongruent conditions (major-negative and minor-positive). In Experiment 2, an analogous interaction was obtained in an analysis of response latencies: Participants categorized targets significantly more quickly in valence-congruent conditions than they did in valence-incongruent conditions. Thus, these experiments demonstrate cross-modal affective priming using major and minor triads as primes.
LINKING RAGA WITH PROBABILITYG
The note attempts to link raga with probability. We argue that the same note will have different probabilities in different ragas depending on its absence or presence and relative importance in case of presence. The most important note statistically speaking is not necessarily the one having the highest probability but one having a high probability that is maintained consistently. This concept of statistical pitch stability is different from Krumhansl’s psychological pitch stability based on note duration. Both concepts can be combined to give rise to psycho-statistical pitch stability by ranking the notes differently using the two contrasting concepts and then giving the notes the average rank.
ON AMOUNT OF NOTES IN OCTAVE
The very brief description of a possibility of development and implantation portable unelectrical shruti-harmoniums with a redundant amount of fixed pitches in each octave. Such harmoniums are capable to promote symmetrical improvement of performance and written fixing qualities for both Western, and North Indian classical and other music.
AUTOMATIC TONIC (SA) DETECTION ALGORITHM IN HINDUSTANI VOCAL MUSIC
Analysis of Indian classical singing performances requires notes to be detected from the extracted pitch profile of the songs. This in turn needs the knowledge of the tonic used by the singer. This is not directly obtainable and if the service of a musician is exploited the correctness would depend on the expertise of the musician. Also such a service may not be readily available. It therefore makes sense to put efforts on finding an algorithmic approach to the detection of the tonic (Sa). An expert musician can often identify the base tonic (Sa) in a singing. However how they do it is an inexplicit knowledge. It may, therefore, be presumed this to be some sort of error-feedback mechanism.
Here in this paper we have presented an algorithm for the automatic extraction of the tonic (Sa) from the steady state pitch sequences of the actual song sung by the expert musicians. The data-base consist 118 aalap performances covering four ragas by 34 male and 7 female well known singers. As there is confusion on the actual ratio system used by Indian performers, we have tested in total 3 ratio system (12 note system) has been experimented with. The detected Sa were found to be in good agreement with the measured values.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TRAINING ON SINGING POWER RATIO AND SINGER’S FORMANT IN CLASSICAL CARNATIC SINGERS
This paper presents the two parameters such as Singing power ratio (SPR) and Singer’s formant (Fs) for objectively evaluating singing talent/quality among three levels of singers. Thirty singers’ (10 junior level, 10 senior level and 10 vidwath level) sung sample of ‘Lambodara’ song was analysed using LTAS of CSL 4500 software to extract SPR. The sample was sung at three conditions including (1) singing without background music, (2) singing with background music at listening comfortable level and (3) singing with background music at more than listening comfortable level. SPR and presence or absence of FS was analysed among the singers at three conditions. No interaction between conditions and levels of singing was found for SPR. Fs was not observed at all the three conditions among three levels of singers. There was a gradual increment in the SPR value with the increase in the years of training. Thus, SPR would be an objective tool to measure the singing voice quality in Carnatic singers.