THE CONTRIBUTION OF SAMA VEDA TO INDIAN MUSIC - Dr. M. R. Gautam
This paper attributes a five-fold contribution of the Sama Veda to Indian Music. It traces the evolution of the musical scale from one note to seven notes. The origin of the murchhana system is analysed. The rudiments of musical aesthetics, rhythm and the first system of notation are also described.
OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF TANPURA FROM THE SOUND SIGNALS USING SPECIAL FEATURES - R. Sengupta, N. Dey, Dipali Nag , A. K. Datta and S. K. Parui
The paper presents a study on objective evaluation of a tanpura from the acoustic signals produced from it for the purpose of grading. The first part consists of perceptual grading of 23 tanpuras from signals produced through actual playing of tanpuras by expert tanpura players. These signals are perceptually evaluated by four different groups consisting of expert musicians, tanpura players, senior and junior scholars of music. The perception study consists of grading each tanpura into a four-point scale by individuals in each group. In the second part of the experiment spectral structure of each tanpura signal is studied and some parameters are selected for evaluating the musical quality. An objective evaluation is made using multiple regression with these features and the subjective evaluation. The results show that an objective evaluation of tanpura from recorded signals conforming to the subjective evaluation is possible with 95% level of confidence.
FORMATION OF MELODIES - R K Das
This paper aims to study how the ragas of Indian classical music were initially formed. Analysing the constituents of melody, the author attempts to recreate how musicians of the Vedic period evolved the notes and from them the melodies that we now call the ragas of Indian classical music.
EVOLUTION OF SENSOR-BASED E-TABLA, E-DHOLAK AND E-SITAR - Ajay Kapur, Philip Davidson, Perry R. Cook, Peter F. Driessen and W. Andrew Schloss
This paper discusses an evolution in North Indian instruments in the designing of technology to capture gestures from a performing artist. Modified traditional instruments use sensor technology and microcontrollers to digitize gestures, enabling a computer to analyze performance to synthesize sound and visual meaning. Specifically, systems were built to capture data from three traditional North Indian instruments: the tabla (a pair of tonal hand drums), the dholak (a barrel shaped folk drum played by two people), and the sitar (a 19-stringed, gourd- shelled instrument). This paper will discuss how these instruments are modified to capture gestural movement, how these signals are mapped to sounds and graphical feedback, and show examples of the new instruments being used in live performance. The hardware is built to try and preserve the techniques passed down from generations of tradition; however, modified performance techniques with the aid of a laptop are also introduced.
LOOKING AT STARTING TRANSIENTS AND TONE COLORING OF THE BOWED STRING - Knut Guettler
The last decade has brought many answers to questions concerning bowed-string onsets and how tone color is controlled by the player. Also, new friction models have emerged, models that relate friction coefficients to contact temperature rather than to the relative velocity. This implies both starting transients and timbre to be considerably more influenced by the properties of the rosin than was earlier presumed. The present paper reviews recent findings in these fields.
Key words: Bowed string, Music transient.
A PROFILE OF THE VOCAL AND NON-VOCAL HABITS OF CARNATIC SINGERS - Prakash B., Roopa Nagarajan, Sharadha Neelakantan, Sharanya Krishnan
Vocal and non-vocal habits play a vital role in the life and career of a vocalist. Yet, most professional singers have a vague awareness of the effects of the same due to which vocal misuses and abuses are often present as the primary cause of their vocal difficulties. A questionnaire (twenty-five questions) was developed to collect information regarding practices, methods of training and habits of Carnatic singers (forty-five subjects, thirty-one females, fourteen males) in Chennai city. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis, and the results profiled the vocal and non-vocal practices of the subjects in the study. The discussion focused on possible influences of the practices on voice culture, protection and conservation, and the outlook of the singers towards their voice quality and profession.
Key words: Carnatic, vocal, non-vocal, professional.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SARGAM IN HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL VOCAL MUSIC - Dr. Prabha Atre
This paper explores the significance of sargam. Explaining the reasons why the note names were abbreviated, the author discusses the four kinds of phrases used in Hindustani vocal classical music today, namely, aalaap, taan, bols and sargam and advises performers and composers to use sargam judiciously.