WHAT IS A RAGA ? - Arvind Parikh
Over the centuries, expression of musical thought in India through Raga music has been perfected and it would be useful to understand what a raga and its characteristics are. A Raga is a product of several ingredients. Selected notes, the combination of which is subject to definite rules and discipline, emphasis of certain notes and evocation of moods or emotions (rasa), all serve to give each raga an independent character. Additionally, ragas are considered to be more effective when performed at a prescribed time of day and season .
ON RAGA, 'RASA' AND TIME - Chitrita Sinha
When ragas are rendered, one has to touch the very soul of a raga through the sublimation of ideas and emotion, resulting in the evocation of emotions called rasas. Another aspect is the time-cycle which needs to be adhered to during the different parts of day and night and the changes in season.
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SÂMAGÂNA - Didhiti Biswas
Sãmagãnas are the oldest known form of Indian music. They are integral part of the Vedic rituals and as such the sãmagãnas were viewed only in that context. Notwithstanding the special character of the sãmagãna a critical study of the sãman or melody associated with the sãmagãna reveal their other roles apart from being a tool for the religious or spiritual upliftment. However, the special power associated with the rituals made people believe that the samaganas do have the power for the achievement of some materialistic goals that always attracted the human mind. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the special roles of the sãmagãna as reflected in the Sãmaveda to achieve some materialistic and emotional aspirations and not only spiritual goals.
THE AESTHETIC ASPECT OF INDIAN MUSIC AND ITS GLOBALISATION - Pradip Kumar Sengupta
Indian music is essentially an aesthetic phenomenon, it is not the perception of any empirical fact or situation. It is an affection of our volitional and appreciative nature. It does not deal with this joy or this sorrow; it reveals the essential nature of all joys and sorrows. It has an universal appeal. The global message of Indian music, particularly the Hindustani classical music, can be best understood by analysing the 'improvisation' aspect of this music where the composer and the performer become identical. It points to a spiritual identity where man's individuality is lost in the highest form of cosmic will, the Divine Creativity. If the improvisation aspect is said to be personal, then it is too personal to spare any person untouched.
SOCIO - RELIGIOUS - CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF A MUSIC TRADITION - E S Perera
When traditional music and musical practices are viewed in a national context , certain patterns of distribution emerge. In traditional societies music - making is associated with social activities. Specific types of music are customarily assigned to particular social occasions and social groups create and maintain their own musical types. Music played no less an important part than devotion in the spiritual endeavour. Hence, from the very early days, music was recognised as an important ritual in Indian temples. The greatest impact on music has been the religious influence in ancient India. Some categories of music belonged exclusively to the royal courts and were performed only on prescribed state occasions, such as ceremonies of installation, darbars, state festivals etc. The changing patterns of taste and temperament covered every aspect of Hindustani culture, not least , the world of arts and music.
RÃAG AND RASA - Pradeep Kumar Dixit
Few questions were raised on the eight rasas discussed in Bharata's Natyashastra. How many of these eight rasas could be linked with music alone. Pt. Omkar Nath Thakur was the first performing musician to answer these questions satisfactorily. He has shown four foundations on which his theory is based. Music can be more musical without the four other rasas (used in drama and poetry) such as, Hasya, Randra, Bhayanaka and Bibhats.
SOLMISATION (SARGAM) PRACTICE IN VOICE TRAINING - S A K Durga
Role of solmisation (sargam) practice in Voice training is highlighted in this paper. The history of the use of solmisation in voice training has been traced in the west and in India. It is found that the solfa exercises (sargam practice) for voice training for the beginners is an universal phenomenon. As the voice mechanism functions as an acoustical network, articulation plays a vital role in determining the voice quality.
Acoustcal study on the role of the practice of solfa exercises is in progress to bring out the scientific reasons behind the solfa exercises which are consonants in enriching the flexibility and quality of voice for singers.
SOFT COMPUTING-BASED AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENT CLASSES - Bozena Kostek
The objective of the presented study was to automatically extract information from monophonic sounds. This process consisted of several stages, namely preprocessing, parameterization and classification. This paper first shows a review on previous work conducted by the author. In addition a more detailed study on the wavelet-based parameterization of musical instrument sounds and automatic recognition by means of artificial neural networks (ANNS) is also shown. First, an engineered method of pitch detection is presented and exemplified by several analyses. A short discussion on error associated with automatic pitch tracking is also included. Then, examples of time-frequency analyses of various musical instrument groups are presented. The analyses are performed employing a database containing musical sounds recorded at the Sound & Vision Engineering Department, Technical University of Gdansk. On the basis of such analyses a set of parameters is derived. Feature vector properties are then discussed. For that purpose Fisher statistics is used. It allows checking the separability between musical instrument pairs. In addition, for the purpose of automatic recognition of musical instrument groups artificial neural networks are used. Various structures and training methods of the ANNs are examined. Exemplary results obtained in the carried out investigations are provided and analyzed. Concluding remarks concerning further development of such experiments are also included in the paper.
FRACTAL AND CORRELATION DIMENSION ANALYSIS IN TANPURA SOUND SIGNALS - R. Sengupta, N. Dey, Dipali Nag and A. K. Datta
Tanpura, multi-stringed instrument used as a drone instrument, is an integral part of Indian classical music. Tanpura signal is considered as repetitive quasi-stable geometric forms. Instability of geometric forms must be related to some sort of non-linearity associated with the strings and their mode of attachment and/or some feed-back mechanism which uses the total acoustic environment. One way to analyse this is to study the fractal and correlation dimensions, In the present study 40 signals from four strings each for ten tanpuras have been used for analysis. Variation of D0, and D2 with pitch for each strings and their interdependence is discussed.